Management Script Utilities



Most of the time you have recurring tasks while writing an application such as starting up an interactive python interpreter with some prefilled imports, starting the development server, initializing the database or something similar.

For that purpose werkzeug provides the werkzeug.script module which helps you writing such scripts.

Basic Usage

The following snippet is roughly the same in every werkzeug script:

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from werkzeug import script

# actions go here

if __name__ == '__main__':

Starting this script now does nothing because no actions are defined. An action is a function in the same module starting with "action_" which takes a number of arguments where every argument has a default. The type of the default value specifies the type of the argument.

Arguments can then be passed by position or using --name=value from the shell.

Because a runserver and shell command is pretty common there are two factory functions that create such commands:

def make_app():
    from yourapplication import YourApplication
    return YourApplication(...)

action_runserver = script.make_runserver(make_app, use_reloader=True)
action_shell = script.make_shell(lambda: {'app': make_app()})

Using The Scripts

The script from above can be used like this from the shell now:

$ ./manage.py --help
$ ./manage.py runserver localhost 8080 --debugger --no-reloader
$ ./manage.py runserver -p 4000
$ ./manage.py shell

As you can see it's possible to pass parameters as positional argument or as named parameter, pretty much like python function calls.

With Werkzeug 0.1 calling of boolean arguments worked a bit different there you had to call --use-reloader yes.

Writing Actions

Writing new action functions is pretty straight forward. All you have to do is to name the function "action_COMMAND" and it will be available as "./manage.py COMMAND". The docstring of the function is used for the help screen and all arguments must have defaults the run function can inspect. As a matter of fact you cannot use *args or **kwargs constructs.

An additional feature is the definition of tuples as defaults. The first item in the tuple could be a short name for the command and the second the default value:

def action_add_user(username=('u', ''), password=('p', '')):
    """Docstring goes here."""

Action Discovery

Per default the run function looks up variables in the current locals. That means if no arguments are provided it implicitly assumes this call:

script.run(locals(), 'action_')

If you don't want to use a action discovery you can set the prefix to an empty string and pass a dict with functions:

    runserver=script.make_runserver(make_app, use_reloader=True),
    shell=script.make_shell(lambda: {'app': make_app()}),
), '')

Example Scripts

In the Werkzeug example folder there are some ./manage-APP.py scripts using werkzeug.script.